Hepatite C

Hepatitis C viral infection increases the risk of lymphoid-neoplasms: A population-based cohort study

Chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL); however, the results are inconsistent among regions with different HCV prevalence rates. The temporal relationship, risk estimates, and association between HCV and lymphoid-neoplasms remain unclear. This study investigated the temporal relationship between HCV infection and lymphoid-neoplasms using a nationwide population-based cohort. Patients with chronic HCV infection were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database during 2001-2005 and designated as the HCV cohort. Those with prior malignancies or coinfected with hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. The age, sex, and comorbidities, including rheumatological disorders and diabetes, were matched by propensity scores to another non-HCV cohort. Both cohorts were followed longitudinally until 2009 for a new diagnosis of any lymphoid-neoplasms or NHL. A total of 11,679 HCV and 46,716 non-HCV patients were included and followed for 8 years. The incidence rates of any lymphoid-neoplasms and NHL were significantly greater in the HCV cohort than the non-HCV cohort (48.4 versus 22.1, and 37.0 versus 17.5 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, both P < 0.001), even after we excluded lymphoid-neoplasms developed within the first year of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis (after adjustment for age, sex, numbers of annual medical visits during follow-up, and comorbidities) indicated that HCV infection was associated with an increased risk of either any lymphoid-neoplasms (hazard ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.55-3.43, P < 0.0001) or NHL (hazard ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval 1.27-3.16, P = 0.003). Conclusion: After adjustment for confounders and biases, chronic HCV infection is temporally associated with a two-fold increased risk of lymphoid-neoplasms, especially NHL, in Asian patients; additional large studies are needed to explore whether HCV eradication can reduce the incidence of lymphoid-neoplasms. (Hepatology 2016)

Esteatose hepática

Long-term clinical outcomes after fatty liver screening in patients undergoing coronary angiogram: A prospective cohort study

There is ongoing debate on whether screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is worthwhile in high-risk groups. Because of shared risk factors, NAFLD is highly prevalent in patients with coronary artery disease. We aimed to test the hypothesis that NAFLD screening in patients requiring coronary angiogram would identify high-risk patients and predict long-term clinical outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study. NAFLD screening was performed by abdominal ultrasonography before coronary angiogram in 612 consecutive patients. At baseline, 356 (58.2%) patients had NAFLD. NAFLD patients, compared with those without, were more likely to have >50% stenosis in one or more coronary arteries (84.6% vs. 64.1%; P < 0.001) and therefore require percutaneous coronary intervention (68.3% vs. 43.4%; P < 0.001). During 3,679 patient-years of follow-up, 47 (13.2%) NAFLD patients and 59 (23.0%) patients without NAFLD died (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.70; P = 0.003). Composite cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular deaths, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, or secondary interventions) were similar between groups (36.5% vs. 37.1%; aHR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.69-1.18). Older age and diabetes were the only independent factors associated with cardiovascular events. Only 2 patients, both in the NAFLD group, died of primary liver cancer. No other patients developed liver-related complications. Conclusion: In patients with clinical indications for coronary angiogram, the presence of NAFLD is associated with coronary artery stenosis and need for coronary intervention, but not increased mortality or cardiovascular complications. Liver cancer and cirrhotic complications are rare. Our data do not support NAFLD screening in this patient group at present, but studies with a longer duration of follow-up are needed. (Hepatology 2016)

Carcinoma Hepatocelular

Clinical patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A multicenter prospective study

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and may evolve into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Only scanty clinical information is available on HCC in NAFLD. The aim of this multicenter observational prospective study was to assess the clinical features of patients with NAFLD-related HCC (NAFLD-HCC) and to compare them to those of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC. A total of 756 patients with either NAFLD (145) or HCV-related chronic liver disease (611) were enrolled in secondary care Italian centers. Survival was modeled according to clinical parameters, lead-time bias, and propensity analysis. Compared to HCV, HCC in NAFLD patients had a larger volume, showed more often an infiltrative pattern, and was detected outside specific surveillance. Cirrhosis was present in only about 50% of NAFLD-HCC patients, in contrast to the near totality of HCV-HCC. Regardless of tumor stage, survival was significantly shorter (P = 0.017) in patients with NAFLD-HCC, 25.5 months (95% confidence interval 21.9-29.1), than in those with HCV-HCC, 33.7 months (95% confidence interval 31.9-35.4). To eliminate possible confounders, a propensity score analysis was performed, which showed no more significant difference between the two groups. Additionally, analysis of patients within Milan criteria submitted to curative treatments did not show any difference in survival between NAFLD-HCC and HCV-HCC (respectively, 38.6 versus 41.0 months, P = nonsignificant) Conclusions: NAFLD-HCC is more often detected at a later tumor stage and could arise also in the absence of cirrhosis, but after patient matching, it has a similar survival rate compared to HCV infection; a future challenge will be to identify patients with NAFLD who require more stringent surveillance in order to offer the most timely and effective treatment. (Hepatology 2016)

Cirrose hepática
Terlipressin given by continuous intravenous infusion versus intravenous boluses in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: A randomized controlled study

In patients with cirrhosis and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), terlipressin has been used either as continuous intravenous infusion or as intravenous boluses. To date, these two approaches have never been compared. The goal of this study was to compare the administration of terlipressin as continuous intravenous infusion versus intravenous boluses in the treatment of type 1 HRS. Seventy-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive either continuous intravenous infusion (TERLI-INF group) at the initial dose of 2 mg/day or intravenous boluses of terlipressin (TERLI-BOL group) at the initial dose of 0.5 mg every 4 hours. In case of no response, the dose was progressively increased to a final dose of 12 mg/day in both groups. Albumin was given at the same dose in both groups (1 g/kg of body weight at the first day followed by 20-40 g/day). Complete response was defined by decrease of serum creatinine (sCr) from baseline to a final value ≤133 μmol/L, partial response by a decrease ≥50% of sCr from baseline to a final value >133 μmol/L. The rate of adverse events was lower in the TERLI-INF group (35.29%) than in the TERLI-BOL group (62.16%, P < 0.025). The rate of response to treatment, including both complete and partial response, was not significantly different between the two groups (76.47% versus 64.85%; P value not significant). The mean daily effective dose of terlipressin was lower in the TERLI-INF group than in the TERLI-BOL group (2.23 ± 0.65 versus 3.51 ± 1.77 mg/day; P < 0.05). Conclusion: Terlipressin given by continuous intravenous infusion is better tolerated than intravenous boluses in the treatment of type 1 HRS. Moreover, it is effective at doses lower than those required for intravenous bolus administration. (Hepatology 2016)

Casa da Hepatite - Universidade Metropolitana de Santos
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