Hepatite B

Randomized, controlled trial of entecavir versus placebo in children with hepatitis B envelope antigen–positive chronic hepatitis B

This ongoing, randomized phase III study assesses the safety and efficacy of entecavir versus placebo in nucleos(t)ide-naïve children (2 to <18 years) with hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Blinded treatment was administered for a minimum of 48 weeks. After week 48, patients with HBeAg seroconversion continued blinded treatment; those without switched to open-label entecavir. The primary endpoint was HBeAg seroconversion and HBV DNA <50 IU/mL at week 48. A total of 180 patients were randomized (2:1) and treated. Baseline median age was 12 years, with approximately 50% of children ages >12 to <18, and 25% each ages ≥2 to ≤6 and >6 to ≤12. Rates for the primary endpoint at week 48 were significantly higher with entecavir than placebo (24.2% [29 of 120] vs. 3.3% [2 of 60]; P = 0.0008). Furthermore, higher response rates were observed with entecavir compared with placebo for the key week 48 secondary endpoints: HBV DNA <50 IU/mL (49.2% [59 of 120] vs. 3.3% [2 of 60]; P < 0.0001); alanine aminotransferase normalization (67.5% [81 of 120] vs. 23.3% [14 of 60]; P < 0.0001); and HBeAg seroconversion (24.2% [29 of 120] vs. 10.0% [6 of 60]; P = 0.0210). Among entecavir-randomized patients, there was an increase in all efficacy endpoints between weeks 48 and 96, including an increase from 49% to 64% in virological suppression. The cumulative probability of emergent entecavir resistance through years 1 and 2 of entecavir was 0.6% and 2.6%, respectively. Entecavir was well tolerated with no observed differences in adverse events or changes in growth compared with placebo. Conclusion: In childhood CHB, entecavir demonstrated superior antiviral efficacy to placebo with a favorable safety profile. These results support the use of entecavir as a therapeutic option in children and adolescents with CHB. (Hepatology 2016)

Hepatite C

Sustained virologic response of 100% in HCV genotype 1b patients with cirrhosis receiving ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir for 12weeks

Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and cirrhosis have a higher risk for liver-related complications and have historically been more difficult to cure than patients without cirrhosis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir, without ribavirin, for 12 weeks in patients with HCV genotype 1b infection and compensated cirrhosis. Treatment-naïve and peginterferon/ribavirin treatment-experienced patients received 12 weeks of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (25/150/100 mg once daily) and dasabuvir (250 mg twice daily). Key inclusion criteria were hemoglobin ⩾10 g/dl, albumin ⩾2.8 g/dl, platelet count ⩾25 × 109/L, creatinine clearance ⩾30 ml/min, and Child-Pugh score ⩽6. Efficacy was assessed by the percentage of patients achieving SVR (HCV RNA <25 IU/ml) 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). Efficacy and safety were assessed in all patients receiving study drug. Sixty patients with HCV genotype 1b infection and cirrhosis received treatment. The study population comprised 62% male, 55% treatment-experienced, 83% with IL28B non-CC genotype, 22% with platelet count <90 × 109/L, and 17% with albumin <3.5 g/dl. All 60 patients completed treatment, and SVR12 was achieved in 100% (95% CI, 94.0–100%) of patients. The most common adverse events were fatigue (22%), diarrhea (20%), and headache (18%). Only one patient (1.7%) experienced a serious adverse event. Laboratory abnormalities were infrequently observed and not clinically significant. The HCV regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir without ribavirin for 12 weeks achieved 100% SVR12 and was well tolerated in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients with cirrhosis, suggesting that this 12-week ribavirin-free regimen is sufficient in this population. (Journal of Hepatology, 2016)

Treatment of hepatitis C virus–associated mixed cryoglobulinemia with direct-acting antiviral agents

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common cause of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MCS). The efficacy and safety of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy in HCV-associated MCS (HCV-MCS) is largely unknown. The authors studied case series of patients with HCV-MCS who were treated with sofosbuvir-based regimens and historical controls treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in a single health care network. HCV-MCS was defined by circulating cryoglobulin associated with systemic vasculitis symptoms. Renal involvement (n = 7) was established by kidney biopsy (n = 5) or by two or more of the following clinical findings: reduced kidney function, proteinuria, or hematuria with other causes excluded (n = 2). Twelve patients received DAA therapy between December 2013 and September 2014. Median age was 61 years, 58% were male, and 50% had cirrhosis. Median baseline serum creatinine was 0.97 mg/dL (range 0.7-2.47). Four patients received rituximab concurrent with DAA therapy. Sustained virological response rate at 12 weeks (SVR12) was 83% overall. Patients with glomerulonephritis who achieved SVR12 experienced an improvement in serum creatinine and a reduction in proteinuria. Cryoglobulin levels decreased in 89% of patients, with median percent decreasing from 1.5% to 0.5% and completely disappearing in four of nine cases who had cryoglobulins measured after treatment. Serious adverse events were infrequent (17%). In contrast, the historical cohort treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin experienced only 10% SVR12, with 100% experiencing at least one adverse event and 50% experiencing premature discontinuation due to adverse events. Conclusion: SVR12 rates for sofosbuvir-based DAA regimens in HCV-MCS were 83%, significantly higher than historical controls treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin; patients with glomerulonephritis experienced improvement in renal function, including those not concomitantly treated with immunosuppression. (Hepatology 2016)

Esteatose Hepática

Glucagon-like peptide 1 decreases lipotoxicity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

Insulin resistance and lipotoxicity are pathognomonic in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are licensed for type 2 diabetes, but no prospective experimental data exists in NASH. This study determined the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, on organ-specific insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid handling and adipose dysfunction in biopsy-proven NASH. Fourteen patients were randomised to 1.8 mg liraglutide or placebo for 12-weeks of the mechanistic component of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial ( Patients underwent paired hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps, stable isotope tracers, adipose microdialysis and serum adipocytokine/metabolic profiling. In vitro isotope experiments on lipid flux were performed on primary human hepatocytes. Liraglutide reduced BMI (−1.9 vs. +0.04 kg/m2; p <0.001), HbA1c (−0.3 vs. +0.3%; p<0.01), cholesterol-LDL (−0.7 vs. +0.05 mmol/L; p <0.01), ALT (−54 vs. −4.0 IU/L; p <0.01) and serum leptin, adiponectin, and CCL-2 (all p <0.05). Liraglutide increased hepatic insulin sensitivity (−9.36 vs. −2.54% suppression of hepatic endogenous glucose production with low-dose insulin; p <0.05). Liraglutide increased adipose tissue insulin sensitivity enhancing the ability of insulin to suppress lipolysis both globally (−24.9 vs. +54.8 pmol/L insulin required to ½ maximally suppress serum non-esterified fatty acids; p <0.05), and specifically within subcutaneous adipose tissue (p <0.05). In addition, liraglutide decreased hepatic de novo lipogenesis in vivo (−1.26 vs. +1.30%; p <0.05); a finding endorsed by the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonist on primary human hepatocytes (24.6% decrease in lipogenesis vs. untreated controls; p <0.01). Liraglutide reduces metabolic dysfunction, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in the key metabolic organs in the pathogenesis of NASH. Liraglutide may offer the potential for a disease-modifying intervention in NASH.
(Journal of Hepatology, 2016)

Cirrose Hepática

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging predicts clinical outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease

Multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been demonstrated to quantify hepatic fibrosis, iron, and steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine if MR can be used to predict negative clinical outcomes in liver disease patients. Patients with chronic liver disease (n = 112) were recruited for MR imaging and data on the development of liver related clinical events were collected by medical records review. The median follow-up was 27 months. MR data were analysed blinded for the Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis score (LIF; <1, 1–1.99, 2–2.99, and ⩾3 representing normal, mild, moderate, and severe liver disease, respectively), T2∗ for liver iron content and proportion of liver fat. Baseline liver biopsy was performed in 102 patients. Liver disease aetiologies included non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (35%) and chronic viral hepatitis (30%). Histologically, fibrosis was mild in 54 (48%), moderate in 17 (15%), and severe in 31 (28%) patients. Overall mortality was 5%. Ten patients (11%) developed at least one liver related clinical event. The negative predictive value of LIF <2 was 100%. Two patients with LIF 2–2.99 and eight with LIF ⩾3 had a clinical event. Patients with LIF ⩾3 had a higher cumulative risk for developing clinical events, compared to those with LIF <1 (p = 0.02) and LIF 1–1.99 (p = 0.03). Cox regression analysis including all 3 variables (fat, iron, LIF) resulted in an enhanced LIF predictive value. Non-invasive standardised multiparametric MR technology may be used to predict clinical outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. (Journal of Hepatology, 2016)

Casa da Hepatite - Universidade Metropolitana de Santos
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